来自编辑| November 1, 2021

用再利用解决缺水问题——图森的故事

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通过凯文·韦斯特林,
@凯维诺沃特

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Two water leaders from Tucson, AZ, reveal how big cities can thrive in the desert, even amid historic drought.

水资源短缺问题对世界各地的许多人来说都太熟悉了,但美国人基本上不用每天担心从水龙头里得到我们需要的东西。然而,由于持续的干旱,这种平静的心态——充足的水资源的特权——在美国受到了挑战,尤其是在西方。

虽然普通市民在下令限制用水之前可能不会担心自己,但城市官员和水资源管理者必须进一步考虑。他们的工作是确保未来几十年(如果不是更长的话)的供应可持续性,即使气候变暖、干旱持续,人们继续涌向干燥、阳光普照的地方。

这是蒂莫西·托穆尔(Timothy Thomure)、约翰·科米克(John Kmiec)和其他许多同龄人面临的困境——他们为公民和工业保持着畅通的渠道,以便服务运行和需求得到满足,从而使美国人能够保持平和的心态,但希望以一种有意识、有资源意识的方式。

Ci Thomure是城市经理助理ty of Tucson, while Kmiec is deputy director at Tucson Water, and together, they tackled the following questions about the state of water in Arizona and what state officials have done to improve it. Their insight is especially important because of their success, given that it can be a model for others. Read on to learn Tucson’s remedy for water shortages — a multifaceted approach that includes reuse, conservation, public engagement, and policy enactment — which should also become the way of the West and perhaps the best way forward for all of us sooner or later.

图森被称为美国城市回收水的领导者。怎么会这样?

With the advent of the Arizona Groundwater Management of 1980, Tucson became dedicated to using renewable supplies like recycled water. By 1983, Tucson constructed a tertiary treatment plant for the advanced treatment of secondary effluent received from Pima County. At the same time, Tucson began the pilot aquifer recharge program for effluent, later to become full-scale. Aquifer recharge using surface-spreading basins provided the required tertiary treatment necessary by the ADEQ [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality]. The Tucson reclaimed water system, using directly filtered water and recovered, recharged groundwater from aquifer storage of effluent, allowed the city to quickly convert irrigation uses, like turf for parks and golf courses, to the renewable supply of reclaimed water. City-funded expansion throughout the 1980s and 1990s converted most high non-potable uses throughout the community to a renewable, reclaimed water supply. By removing large volumes of water from the potable water system through the creation of this other distribution system, Tucson Water was able to manage its water supplies for drinking water in a more efficient way.

你能描述一下从废水到再利用的处理途径吗?新利在线国际

Secondary effluent is received from the Pima County Agua Nueva facility. Traditionally, that water is either directly tertiary treated or placed in surface-spreading basins for aquifer recharge. In more recent times, the city and other water providers have been receiving aquifer recharge credit for water recharged through the Santa Cruz River. The recovered water — tertiary effluent, whether received directly from the wastewater plant or recovered from the aquifer — is then disinfected, tested for quality, and delivered as Class A water to the reclaimed water system for distribution.

图森市有多少水来自填海,这些水在哪里得到利用?

近年来,再生水系统占图森水务总需水量的10%至14%。主要客户包括高尔夫球场、学校、公园、交通走廊和单户住宅。

图森有没有考虑过从间接饮用水再利用转向直接饮用水再利用?

在过去几年里,图森水务公司是一家主要的领导者,通过一个示范项目的合作关系,证明亚利桑那州可以进行直接的饮用水再利用。我们成功地进行了游说,将州内禁止饮用水再利用的规定从法规中删除。现在,全州的社区都在考虑将直接饮用水再利用作为一种选择。虽然在不久的将来,图森不需要直接饮用水再利用,但我们知道,如果决定朝这个方向发展,这可以被视为一种选择。

To what degree do these programs require public outreach and participation?

在图森水务公司,通过水资源保护实现可持续发展是我们推广的一个重要部分。向客户提供有关保护价值的信息,并为家电和集水提供回扣计划,帮助图森水务公司的总体人均用水量在过去几十年中大幅下降。人们不会神奇地保护或变得可持续。关于水的价值、城市水循环如何运作以及能源与水的关系的宣传对于人们理解水的真正价值都很重要。一旦他们真正理解了,就会产生一种保护伦理。例如,2021的图森水公司每年使用的水量与20世纪90年代初相同,但超过200000人在增长。

What other plans, if any, does Tucson have to bolster its water supply?

图森水务公司未来可以使用几种水资源投入:持续充分利用上限[中央亚利桑那项目] water, effluent entitlements, groundwater rights, remediated groundwater, and stormwater-capture programs.

你是否看到压力因素——人口增长、干旱/气候变化等——在未来变得越来越严重,你如何在挑战面前保持领先?

答案的第一部分是“是和否”。气候科学的优势表明图森将继续变暖,尽管对我们地区总降水量的预测好坏参半,而且更加不确定。关于人口增长,在过去20年里,图森将不断增长的水需求与人口增长脱钩。它不再是供水的直接压力源,尽管它通常被认为是这样的。

图森通过支持社区水资源保护计划、投资于水系统效率、为未来储存水、为新开发制定水资源效率规范和标准、水资源再利用方面的创新、部署新技术、开发雨水和雨水等新供水,以及建立战略伙伴关系,走在供水挑战的前面。

Tucson has also worked on mitigation strategies with significant public outreach. Two that come to mind are the mayor’s Tucson Million Trees initiative and the Green Stormwater Infrastructure program. [Find more information在这里.]

With an eye toward the future, Mayor Regina Romero and city council voted to pass differential water rates recently. This is a policy decision that, among other things, is designed to encourage conservation by charging a higher rate for water to higher users of this valuable resource.

此外,图森市的公民用水咨询委员会(CWAC)正在审查和更新地方法规,如商业雨水收集条例和住宅灰水条例。

其他水资源紧张的城市可以从图森的经验中学到什么?

Continuous community involvement on “how water works” within their community is key. When people know how their water is brought to them, they respect the process and value the resource more.

Education, conservation, and local ordinances and policies make a difference.